Bypassing microbial resistance: xylitol controls microorganisms growth by means of its anti-adherence property
Ferreira, Aline S., Annelisa F. Silva-Paes-Leme, Nadia R.B. Raposo, and Silvio S. Da Silva.
2015 Xylitol is an important polyalcohol suitable for use in odontological, medical and pharmaceutical products and as an additive in food. The first studies on the efficacy of xylitol in the control and treatment of infections started in the late 1970s and it is still applied for this purpose, with safety and very little contribution to resistance. Xylitol seems to act against microorganisms exerting an anti-adherence effect. Some research studies have demonstrated its action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. However, a clear explanation of how xylitol is effective has not been completely established yet. Some evidence shows that xylitol acts on gene expression, down-regulating the ones which are involved in the microorganisms’ virulence, such as capsule formation. Another possible clarification is that xylitol blocks lectin-like receptors. The most important aspect is that, over time, xylitol bypasses microbial resistance and succeeds in controlling infection, either alone or combined with another compound. In this review, the effect of xylitol in inhibiting the growth of a different microorganism is described, focusing on studies in which such an anti-adherent property was highlighted. This is the first mini-review to describe xylitol as an anti-adherent compound and take into consideration how it exerts such action.
Children’s acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol sugar substitute for dental caries prevention.
Jorge L Castillo, Peter Milgrom, Susan E Coldwell, Ramon Castillo, and Rocio Lazo.
Jul 22, 2005 Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program.
Effect of xylitol sugar substitute on growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of fructose and sorbitol.
Tapiainen T, Kontiokari T, Sammalkivi L, Ikaheimo I, Koskela M, Uhari M..
Jan 01, 2002 “Thus, it seems that xylitol is the only commercially used sugar substitute proven to have an antimicrobial effect on pneumococci.”
Xylitol sugar substitute as a dietary procedure for preventing dental caries in young adults.
Jan 01, 2002 “Scientific evidence also suggests that the addition of small daily quantities of xylitol to the diet of children and young adults causes significant reduction in the incidence of dental caries.”
Children’s acceptance of xylitol-based foods.
Lam M, Riedy CA, Coldwell SE, Milgrom P, Craig R..
Jan 01, 2002 “These results suggest that snack foods developed with xylitol are generally well accepted by children.”
Food components and caries.
Jan 01, 2002 “For instance, replacing sugar in foods with xylitol, sorbitol, saccharin, or aspartame may lead to a reduction in the incidence of dental caries.”
Organoleptic properties of a new sugar substitute sweetening agent formulation based on aspartame and xylitol.
Dumas P, Sauvageot F.
Jan 01, 2002 “The results show that the aspartame-xylitol mixture with sweetness intensity equal to 5.0 is a good sucrose sugar substitute.”
Sugar, sugar substitute and meal frequency in relation to caries prevention: new perspectives.
Apr 01, 1997 “The use of chewing gum and other xylitol-containing products have resulted in defined reduction in caries and represent interesting alternatives for high-caries-risk populations.”
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